Misri yatangaza baraza jipya la Mawaziri
Baraza jipya la Mawaziri limeapisha nchini Misri, huku maandamano ya kuipinga serikali yakiendelea. Zaidi ya nusu ya mawaziri wamebadilishwa, ingawa Waziri Mkuu, Essam Sharaf, anaendelea kubakia katika wadhifa wake.
Baraza tawala la Misri
Hadi kufikia uwamuazi wa kuunda serikali mpya ya Misri kumekuwepo na vigezo na matatizo pia. Uteuzi wa baraza jipya la Mawaziri ulicheleweshwa mwanzoni kutokana na mabishano baina ya Waziri mkuu na baraza la kijeshi linalotawala, kisha Waziri mkuu akapelekwa hospitali kwa sababu ya shinikizo la damu.
Kisha baraza likabadilishwa, hadi wakati wa kula viapo walipoapishwa na kiongozi wa kijeshi Field Marshal Tantawi.
Mabadiliko hayo hayajafanikiwa kikamilifu, katika nia yake ya kuwaridhisha upinzani ingawa yameweza kupunguza makali ya waandamanaji waliokwama katika medani ya Tahrir.
medani ya Tahrir-Misri
Wakati baraza jipya likiiapishwa, koto moja mjini Cairo ikaondoa amri kwamba jina la aliyekuwa Rais, Hosni Mubarak liondolewe kutoka majengo yote ya umma. Uwamuzi huu ulisababisha malumbano baina ya waungaji mkono na wanaompinga kiongozi aliyeondoka madarakani nje ya majengo ya mahakama.
Marekani kupeleka msaada wa chakula maeneo ya al-Shabaab
Marekani imesema itatuma msaada katika eneo lililokumbwa na baa la njaa nchini Somalia linalodhibitiwa na kundi la kiislam la al-Shabaab
Lakini Maafisa wa misaada wa Marekani wamesema ni lazima wapewe uhakika kuwa wapiganaji hao hawataingilia kati kuvuruga ugawaji wa misaada hiyo.
Marekani inalichukulia kundi la al-Shabab kuwa la kigaidi na mwaka jana kundi hilo lilizua msaada wa chakula katika eneo kubwa la Somalia linalolidhibiti.
Umoja wa Mataifa umetangaza rasmi kuwa kuna baa la njaa katika maeneo mawili ya Kusini mwa Somalia yaliyokumbwa na ukame mkali kwa zaidi ya karne.
kundi linalojihusisha na al-Qaeda
linadhibiti sehemu kubwa ya Kusini na Katikati mwa Somalia, limezuia huduma ya mashirika ya misaada katika eneo lake tangu mwaka 2009, lakini hivi karibuni liliruhusu misaada hiyo ianze kutolewa.
Naibu Kamishna wa Shirika la Maendeleo la Marekani, Donald Steinberg, amesema misaada hiyo isiwanufaishe al-Shabab.
"Tunachokihitaji ni Shirika la Mpango wa Chakula Duniani
(WFP) na mashirika mengine, Umoja wa Mataifa au mashirika mengine, yote ya umma na sekta binafsi ambao wako tayari kwenda Somalia watupatie uhakika kuwa hawajasumbuliwa na al-Shabab, na kwamba hawajapewa vishawishi vyovyote kutoka kwa al-Shabab, ili tuweze kufanya kazi bila kuingiliwa," Bw Steinberg ameiambia BBC.
Amesema lengo lilikuwa ni kuokoa maisha, "na sio kucheza mchezo wa ‘paka na panya’ na mashirika ya UN au kundi lolote lingine ambalo lina ujasiri wa kutosha kwenda na kutoa msaada huo.
Mchambuzi wa BBC Afrika Martin Plaut anasema hatua hii inaonyesha mabadiliko makubwa katika sera za Washington.
Mwezi April 2010 Rais wa Marekani Barack Obama
alitoa maagizo maalum yakilitaja kundi la al-Shabab kuwa ni kundi la kigaidi, akimaanisha hakuna msaada wowote utakaopelekwa katika eneo linalodhibitiwa na kundi la al-Shabaab, anaongeza mchambuzi wa BBC.
Inakadiriwa kuwa watu milioni 10 wameathiriwa na ukame mbaya eneo la Pembe ya Afrika kwa muda wa zaidi ya karne. Zaidi ya raia wa Somalia 166,000 inaripotiwa kuwa wameyakimbia makazi yao na kuingia nchi za Kenya na Somalia.
Chombo cha Atlantis charudi duniani
Chombo cha mwisho cha angani cha Marekani leo kilirudi tena duniani, na kutua katika kituo cha vyombo vya angani cha Kennedy, muda mfupi kabla ya jua kuchomoza alfajiri.
Itabidi Marekani kuwategemea wengine kwa safari za anga za juu
Vyombo vya NASA vilitumiwa sana katika kuanzisha kituo cha angani, na vile vile darubini iliyojulikana kama Hubble.
"Chombo hasa kilibadilisha mtizamo wetu wa vile tunavyoiona dunia", alisema kamanda Chris Ferguson,
mara tu baada ya chombo hicho kutua.
"Kuna hisia nyingi leo, lakini jambo moja ambalo kamwe halina ubishi ni kwamba Marekani haitaacha kuvinjari", alisema alipokuwa akizungumza na kituo cha kusimamia safari za angani.
Kurudi ardhini kwa Chombo hicho cha kihistoria ni kufuatia amri ya serikali ya Marekani, na hasa kutokana na gharama za juu katika kuvitunza vyombo hivyo vya angani.
Uamuzi huo unamaanisha kwamba nchi hiyo haina tena uwezo wa kuwatuma wataalamu wa anga katika sayari mbalimbali.
Chombo cha Atlantis baadaye kilifahamika kama "the final four", yaani nne za mwisho, na kuashiria nia ya Marekani ya kuialika sekta ya watu binafsi pengine kuvitumia vyombo hivyo kibiashara, na hasa katika kupanga safari za kuwapeleka abiria angani.
Lakini hayo hayatazamiwi kufanyika katika kipindi cha miaka mitatu hadi minne hivi.
Katika kipindi hicho, NASA itawategemea Warusi katika kuwafikishia wataalumu wao hadi kituo cha kimataifa cha angani, kinachojulikana kama International Space Station (ISS).
Licha ya kiza kilichokuwepo katika anga ya kituo cha vyombo vya angani cha Florida, umati mkubwa wa watu ulijitokeza katika kushuhudia chombo hicho cha Atlantis kikirudi duniani.
Watu wengine elfu mbili walikisubiri chombo hicho katika uwanja ambao kilitua, na hata katika kituo cha kukielekeza chombo huko Texas, watu wengi walionekana katika lango la kituo cha safari za anga cha Johnson.
Mabaki ya msaidizi wa Hitler yafukuliwa
Kaburi ambalo limekuwa na mabaki ya msaidizi wa Adolf Hitler, Rudolf Hess, limebomolewa, ili kuyazuia makundi ya ki-Nazi ambayo yamekuwa yakilitembelea na kutoa heshima zao kuacha kufanya hivyo.
Mifupa ya Hess ilifukuliwa kutoka kaburi moja mjini Wunsiedel, eneo la Ujerumani kusini, mapema siku ya Jumatano.
Mifupa hiyo itateketezwa, na jivu kutawanywa baharini.
Hess alikamatwa baada ya kuingia kwa ndege nchini Uingereza mwaka 1941, na kuhukumiwa kifo.
Alijinyonga gerezani mjini Berlin, Ujerumani, mwaka 1987, akiwa na umri wa miaka 93.
Kabla ya kifo chake, aliandika wasia azikwe katika mji mdogo wa Wunsiedel, ambako familia yake ilikuwa na nyumba walioitumia kwa mapumziko, na wazazi wake walikuwa tayari wamezikwa hapo.
Kanisa la Lutherani wakati huo lilikubali ombi lake, likiamua kwamba haliwezi kupuuza mapendekezo ya marehemu.
Lakini kanisa hilo na wakaazi wa hapo wamekuwa wakiishi kwa hali ya wasiwasi, kufuatia makundi mbalimbali ya ubaguzi wa rangi kulitembelea kaburi hilo mara kwa mara.
Kila mwaka, katika kumbukumbu za kifo chake, makundi yanayosifu shughuli za ki-Nazi yamekuwa yakifika hapo kutoa heshima zao, na vile vile kuweka maua hapo.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (26 April 1894 in Alexandria, Egypt – 17 August 1987 in Berlin, Germany) was a prominent Nazi politician and official acting as Adolf Hitler's deputy in the Nazi Party during the 1930s and early 1940s. On the eve of war with the Soviet Union, he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom, but instead was arrested and held in captivity for the rest of the war. Hess was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to life in prison at Spandau Prison, Berlin, where he died in 1987.
Hess's 1941 attempt to negotiate peace and subsequent lifelong imprisonment have given rise to many theories about his motivation for flying to Scotland, and conspiracy theories about why he remained imprisoned alone at Spandau, long after all other convicts had been released. Precise and detailed information on many aspects of Hess's situation either has been withheld in confidential archives in several nations, or has disappeared outright; this has made accurate historical conclusions very problematic.
On 27–28 September 2007, numerous British news services published descriptions of conflict between his Western and Soviet captors over his treatment and how the Soviet captors were steadfast in denying repeated entreaties for his release on humanitarian grounds during his last years.
In July 2011, the remains of Rudolf Hess were exhumed from a grave in Bavaria after it became a pilgrimage for thousands of neo-nazis.Hess was born in Alexandria, Egypt, the eldest of four children, to Fritz H. Hess, a prosperous German Lutheran importer/exporter from Bavaria, and Clara (née Münch). His mother was of Greek descent, of the Georgiadis family of Alexandria. The family lived in luxury on the Egyptian coast, near Alexandria, and visited Germany often during the summers, allowing the Hess children to learn the German language and to absorb German culture. The family moved back to Germany in 1908, where Rudolf was subsequently enrolled in boarding school in Bad Godesberg, at the Evangelical School. Hess showed aptitude in science and mathematics, and expressed interest in becoming an astronomer. However, his father wished him to eventually continue the family business, Hess & Co., and in 1911 convinced Rudolf to study business for one year in Neuchatel, Switzerland, at the Ecole Superieur de Commerce
World War I
Hess joined the Hamburg trading company Feldt, Stein & Co. as an apprentice in 1912. At the outbreak of World War I he enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment, became an infantryman and was awarded the Iron Cross, second class. He saw heavy action both on the Western Front (at Ypres and Verdun) and in the Carpathian Mountains. After being wounded on several occasions — including a chest wound severe enough to prevent his return to the front as an infantryman — he transferred to the Imperial Air Corps (after being rejected once). He then took aeronautical training and served as a pilot in an operational squadron, Jasta 35b (Bavarian), with the rank of lieutenant from 16 October 1918. He won no victories. The war ended on 11 November 1918
Marriage, family, early post-war years
On 20 December 1927 Hess married 27-year-old Ilse Pröhl (22 June 1900 – 7 September 1995) from Hannover. Together they had a son, Wolf Rüdiger Hess (18 November 1937 – 24 October 2001).
After the war the successful Hess family business collapsed and was taken over by the victorious Western allies. Hess went to Munich, and took a job at a textile importing firm. He joined the Freikorps. He also joined the Thule Society, a right-wing völkisch occult-mystical organization. After the end of the war, Bavaria underwent fierce infighting between right-wing groups and left-wing forces, some of which were Soviet-backed.
University, meets Hitler
In autumn of 1919, Hess left his job and enrolled in the University of Munich where he studied political science, history, economics, and geopolitics under Professor Karl Haushofer, whom he had first met in the summer of 1919 in a social setting. From their first meeting, Hess became a disciple of Karl Haushofer, the two became close friends, and their families would also become close in the ensuing years, as Hess and Karl's son Albrecht Haushofer also developed a strong friendship.
After hearing Adolf Hitler, a powerful orator, speak for the first time in May 1920 at a Munich rally, Hess became completely devoted to Hitler, and spent much of his time and effort for the next several years organizing for Hitler at the local level in Bavaria. Hess joined the fledgling Nazi Party in 1920 as one of its first members. Hess introduced Karl Haushofer to Hitler in the spring of 1921, following a rally at a beerhall. This was a critical and vital development in the eventual Nazi rise to power. Haushofer and Hitler connected immediately on a personal level. Haushofer's geopolitical theories found a strong convert in Hitler, who utilized this material to form the basis of his own plans for the rebuilding of Germany; Hitler soon began using Haushofer's material in his speeches, which drew ever-larger audiences and attention. Haushofer would become a close adviser to Hitler, and assume prominence in Germany with Hitler's rise.
Hess commanded an SA battalion during the Hitler-led Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, which failed. Hess served seven and a half months in Landsberg Prison; Hitler was sentenced to five years in the same prison, but eventually served just nine months. Acting as Hitler's private secretary in prison, Hess transcribed and partially edited Hitler's book Mein Kampf. While in prison, Hitler and Hess were frequently visited and tutored by Karl Haushofer. Hess also introduced Hitler at early Nazi Party rallies.
Hess retained his interest in flying after the end of his active military career, and competed successfully in several races during the 1920s and 1930s.
Eventually, Hess became the third-most powerful man in Germany, behind Hitler and Hermann Göring. Soon after Hitler assumed dictatorial powers, beginning in early 1933, Hess was named "Deputy to the Fuhrer". Hess had a privileged position as Hitler's deputy in the early years of the Nazi movement and in the early years of the Third Reich. For instance, he had the power to take "merciless action" against any defendant who he thought got off too lightly — especially in cases of those found guilty of attacking the party, Hitler or the state. Hess also played a prominent part in the creation of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935. Hitler biographer John Toland described Hess' political insight and abilities as somewhat limited.
Hess had extensive dealings with senior leaders of major European nations during the 1930s. His education, family man image, high office, and calm, forthright manner all served to make him the more respectful and respectable representative of the often otherwise crude and vulgar Nazis. Compared with other Nazi leaders, Hess had a good reputation among foreign leaders.
Within Germany, Hess was somewhat marginalized as the 1930s progressed, as foreign policy took greater prominence. His alienation increased during the early years of the war, as attention and glory were focused on military leaders, along with Göring, Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler. Those three Nazi leaders in particular had much higher profiles than Hess. Though Hess worshipped Hitler more than the others, he was not nakedly ambitious and did not crave power in the same manner they did. However, as the Deputy Fuhrer, he was definitely not a figurehead. Hess held as much power as the other Nazi leaders, if not more, under Hitler. He controlled who could get an audience with the Fuhrer, as well as passing and vetoing proposed bills, and managing party activities. Hitler appointed Hess as "Minister Without Portfolio".
On 1 September 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland and launched World War II, Hitler announced that should anything happen to both him and Göring, Hess would be next in the line of succession.
Hess ordered a mapping of all the ley lines in the Third Reich
Death and legacy
On 17 August 1987, Hess died while under Four Power imprisonment at Spandau Prison in West Berlin, at the age of 93. He was found in a summer house in a garden located in a secure area of the prison with an electrical cord wrapped around his neck. His death was ruled a suicide by asphyxiation. He was buried at Wunsiedel in a Hess family grave plot sold to his family by the Vetters of the Sechsämtertropfen bitter liquor company of Wunsiedel. Spandau Prison was subsequently demolished to prevent it from becoming a shrine.
Neo-Nazis from Germany and Europe held gatherings in Wunsiedel for a memorial march and similar demonstrations that took place every year around the anniversary of Hess's death. These gatherings were banned from 1991 to 2000 and neo-Nazis tried to assemble in other cities and countries (such as the Netherlands and Denmark). Demonstrations in Wunsiedel were again legalised in 2001. After stricter German legislation regarding demonstrations by neo-Nazis was enacted in March 2005, the demonstrations were banned again. Hess's grave, with its epitaph "Ich hab's gewagt" ("I dared"), was re-opened on the morning of 20 July 2011 and his remains exhumed then cremated. Soon afterwards his ashes were scattered at sea. The intention was that this would stop future demonstrations around the anniversary of Hess's death.
Hess was the last surviving member of Hitler's cabinet.